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Item Destructor

Introduction#

Item Destructor provides destructor semantics for an item in the cache. This is useful when you want to execute some logic on removal of an item from the cache. When you use cachelib APIs to concurrently allocate memory from the cache for an item, insert an item into the cache, or remove an item from the cache, the item's lifetime ends when the item is evicted or removed from the cache and the last handle held by all sources drops. Item Destructor provides you an ability to capture this and take some appropriate action if needed.

Item Destructor is an extension to Remove callback, it guarantees that the destructor is executed once and only once when the item is dropped from the cache, includes both DRAM and NVM. If Nvm Cache is not enabled, Item Destructor does the exact same behavior as Remove Callback. These two features can't be used at the same time.

Example#

For example, suppose you want to maintain a counter for the total number of items in your cache and increment the counter when you call the insertOrReplace() method. The item you inserted could be evicted or removed from the cache when you again call insertOrReplace() or allocate(). To decrement the counter when the item you inserted is evicted or removed by another thread, you can have your logic encapsulated as item destructor .

Item Destructor takes the following signature and can be provided in the config for initializing the cache:

auto itemDestructor = [&](const Allocator::DestructorData& data) { --totalItems; };config.setItemDestructor(itemDestructor);// Adds an item to cache and increment the counter.void addToCache(std::string key, size_t val) {  auto handle = cache.allocate(keys[i], 100); // allocate an item  cache.insertOrReplace(handle); // insert into cache.  ++totalItems;}// Suppose your cache can contain at most 5 items and// it evicts beyond that.for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {  addToCache(std::to_string(i), 100);}std::cout << totalItems << std::endl; // this will print 5.

DestructorData#

Item Destructor gets called with the following pieces of information:

// used by ItemDestructor, indicating how the item is destructedenum class DestructorContext {  // item was in dram and evicted from dram. it could have  // been present in nvm as well.  kEvictedFromRAM,
  // item was only in nvm and evicted from nvm  kEvictedFromNVM,
  // item was present in dram and removed by user calling  // remove()/insertOrReplace(), or removed due to expired.  // it could have been present in nvm as well.  kRemovedFromRAM,
  // item was present only in nvm and removed by user calling  // remove()/insertOrReplace().  kRemovedFromNVM};
struct DestructorData {  // remove or eviction  DestructorContext context;
  // item about to be freed back to allocator  // when the item is evicted/removed from NVM, the item is created on the  // heap, functions (e.g. CacheAllocator::getAllocInfo) that assumes item is  // located in cache slab doesn't work in such case.  // chained items must be iterated though @chainedAllocs  // internal APIs getNext and getParentItem are broken for  // items destructed from NVM.  Item& item;
  // Iterator range pointing to chained allocs associated with @item  // when chained items are evicted/removed from NVM, items are created on the  // heap, functions (e.g. CacheAllocator::getAllocInfo) that assumes items  // are located in cache slab doesn't work in such case.  folly::Range<ChainedItemIter> chainedAllocs;};
  • context This refers to the context of removal. ItemDestructor can be called [invoked] on an item when it is explicitly removed by the user through the remove() API or when it is replacing an old item through the insertOrReplace() API, or when it being evicted to make room for a new item. For the first two calls on ItemDestructor, the context is kRemovedFromRAMor kRemovedFromNVM depends on the last location of the item; and for eviction, the context is kEvictedFromRAM or kEvictedFromNVM.

  • item Reference to the item that is being destroyed. Modifying the item at this point is pointless because this is the last handle to the item and the memory will be recycled after the call to the destructor.When the item is evicted/removed from NVM, the item is created on the heap, functions (e.g. CacheAllocator::getAllocInfo) that assumes item is located in cache slab doesn't work in such case.

  • chainedAllocs This provides a reference to the list of chained items associated with the given item if they exist. For details on what chained allocations are, see [[Cache_Library_User_Guides/Visit_data_in_cache/ | visit data in cache]].Chained items must be iterated though chainedAllocs, internal APIs getNext and getParentItem are broken for items destructed from NVM.

Guarantees#

Cachelib guarantees the following for Item Destructor executions:

  • The destructor will be executed exactly once when the last handle for the item goes out of scope and the item is no longer accessible through the cache upon calling remove() or insertOrReplace() causing a replacement.
  • The destructor will be executed for any item that is evicted from cache.
  • When the destructor is executed, there can be no other future or concurrent accessors to the item.
  • The destructor will not be executed when item is in-place mutated, including add/pop chained items, and value mutation via getMemory().
  • The destructor will not be executed if you allocate memory for an item and don't insert the item into the cache.
  • The destructor will not be executed when items are moved internally.

Note that Item Destructor is executed per item, not per key. For example, if you already have an item in cache and call insertOrReplace() to replace it with another item with same key (even same value), cachelib will execute the destructor for the replaced item.

Performance Impact#

  1. One lock is added to protect against race conditions for concurrent operations, but the lock is sharded and performance impact is minimal.
  2. Additional flash read is done in BlockCache in order to execute the destructor, it will be retried if the region is being reclaimed, and fail to read (e.g. io error) will disable Nvm Cache.

Migrate from RemoveCallback#

The migration is very simple:

  1. config.setRemoveCallback -> config.setItemDestructor
  2. Update your callback parameter RemoveCbData -> DestructorData, and the context.
  3. Make sure chained items are iterated though chainedAllocs.

The impact to you:

  • If you only use DRAM cache, no impact, both functionality and performance are same.
  • If you're using hybrid cache, the callback will only be triggered when item kicked off from the whole cache, and there is some performance impact but it should be minimal (see 'Performance Impact' section for details).

Known Issue#

We try our best to guarantee that the destructor is triggered once and only once for each item, but there is one scenario which the destructor would not be executed: if we get a reference overflow exception when an item is evicted or removed from NvmCache. This scenario should happen very rare, nvm.destructors.refcount_overflow stat can be used to track if this has ever happened.